What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 

Some people have difficulty focusing their minds and attention on one thing. Today, we’ll discuss what is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); its symptoms, causes, and treatment.

What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? 

ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is a mental disorder comprising of impacts on how you control your behavior, sit still, and pay attention to things. ADHD occurs in young children, and teens, and keeps on affecting them in their adulthood. However, it’s common among children; boys are more vulnerable to it than girls. You can identify it among children in the early schooling years when they find it difficult to pay attention to their work.

You can’t cure ADHD or prevent it from happening. If you identify it in the early stages and follow a good treatment plan, then they can learn healthier ways to manage the symptoms of ADHD.


ADD (attention deficit disorder) is the previous and old name for ADHD condition, and they changed it in the 1990s. Some people still employ both of these terms synonymously as the same thing.

Symptoms of ADHD 

Some of the main symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adults are as follows;

Symptoms of ADHD in Children

Children exhibit three types of symptoms and they’re as follows;


  • Daydreaming
  • Losing things often
  • If it requires sitting still, they don’t like to do it
  • Problem with organizing daily activities and tasks
  • Forgetting to perform daily routine activities
  • Making careless mistakes and not paying attention
  • Not listening carefully
  • Not completing tasks or following the direction
  • Distracted easily

II-Impulsive & Hyperactive

  • Interrupting others
  • Answering without thinking
  • Having difficulty in waiting for your turn
  • Always ready to go like “a motor is stimulating you”
  • Excessively talking
  • Always in the motion state like climbing and running over things (restlessness is the term used for adults and teens in such a state)
  • Find it difficult to play games quietly
  • Not sitting still
  • While sitting, keep bouncing, fidgeting, and squirming


It comprises exhibiting both symptoms of inattentiveness, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity.

Symptoms of ADHD in Adults

Some of the main symptoms of ADHD in adults are as follows;

  • Problems with relationship
  • Depression
  • Mood swings
  • Difficult to focus while studying
  • Getting bored often
  • Frustration
  • Procrastination
  • Difficult to be organized
  • Addiction or substance misuse
  • Impulsiveness
  • Difficulty in controlling your anger
  • Problems at work
  • Low self-esteem issues
  • Anxiety
  • Forgetting things and getting late often

Causes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 

Psychological experts don’t know the exact and precise causes of ADHD; some of the elements that could cause it are as follows;

  • Brain Disorder/Brain Injury: frontal lobe is when your brain is damaged at the front, and it causes issues in managing emotions and controlling your impulses.
  • Toxins: they impact the brain development and growth of young children
  • Poor Nutrition: substance abuse, drinking, smoking, infections, and poor nutrition during the pregnancy could badly impact the brain development of the baby
  • Brain Changes: less active brain areas that control your attention, especially among children with ADHD condition
  • Chemical: In people with ADHD condition, their brain chemicals are out of balance
  • Genes: ADHD may be inherent and it could run in the family

Some common misconceptions are that food allergy, poor school, stressful house environment, and watching TV excessively could cause ADHD; but there is no valid evidence that they could cause it.

Treatment of ADHD 

There are various treatment plans available for ADHD. Many research studies have shown that the best way to treat is to apply multiple approaches in combination (medication and therapy).


Medication helps you to amplify the period of attention, manage impulsive behavior, and control the hyperactivity. If somehow they react with the brain chemicals like dopamine, it would aggravate the impulsive behavior. However, some of the top stimulating medicines are as follows;

  • Methylphenidate
  • Lisdexamfetamine
  • Dextroamphetamine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Amphetamine

Stimulating medicines don’t treat the symptoms of everyone. Non-stimulating medicines are as follows;

  • Guanfacine
  • Clonidine
  • Atomoxetine

Some doctors also recommend antidepressant medicines like venlafaxine, bupropion, and SSRIs.

The side effects of ADHD medication are as follows;

  • Headache
  • Stomach Upset
  • Skin discoloration
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Crankiness
  • Fatigues
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Anxiety

Stimulant medicines could cause severe side effects like heart attacks, psychotic reactions, and death in children. Therefore, you should work closely with your doctor and discuss the risks and benefits of every medicine. It’s because it takes some time to diagnose the exact problem and come to the right medication.


The purpose of the therapeutic approach is to change the behavior by focusing on the following elements;

Social Skill Training

It teaches you important social gestures like sharing with others and taking a turn by practice and remaining mindful of your actions.


It helps people with ADHD condition to manage their frustration and behavior in healthier ways. It also improves your self-esteem level.

Modifying Behavior

It focuses on teaching healthier ways to replace negative habits and behaviors with positive ones. You set clear rules for the kids and what type of behavior and attitude you’re expecting from them. You should also tell them the consequences if they don’t follow the rules; and you should reward them if they follow the rules.

Special Education

If you have a routine and a proper structure, it would help the children to deal with ADHD effectively.

Conclusion: What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 

After an in-depth study of what is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; its symptoms, causes, and treatment; we have realized that ADHD could badly impact your routine life. If you’re observing ADHD symptoms in the children, then you should refer them to the doctor and work alongside the healthcare provider to work on the treatment plan.