What is Mood Disorder? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 

Some people experience inconsistency in their mood and behavior, and it impacts their capability to perform routine functions in their lives. Today, we’ll discuss what is a mood disorder; its symptoms, causes, and treatment.

What is Mood Disorder? 

Mood disorder is a mental health condition it impacts the emotional state of a person. It’s a type of condition in which a person feels extreme forms of both sadness and happiness in the long term. However, it is completely normal to experience changing the mood from time to time in different situations and circumstances.

The symptoms should exhibit for a few weeks for the diagnosis of mood disorder. It brings changes in your behavior and attitude and it impacts your capability to perform routine functions in your life smoothly like school and work.

Types of Mood Disorders 

Some of the main types of mood disorders are as follows;


Depression is a very common form of mental disorder in response to traumatic life events like a major illness, losing a job, death of a family member or spouse, sadness, and grief. If the depressive episodes persist over a period of time even when the stressful event is gone, then your doctor would diagnose the depression as the condition as the major or clinical depression. However, some of the main types of depression are as follows;

  • Postpartum Depression: it’s a form of a depressive episode that happens during or after the pregnancy
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder: it’s a chronic form of depression that last for roundabout two years, and the severity of its symptoms decreases over time
  • Seasonal Effective Disorder: it is a form of depression that happens in a particular season of the year like summer, spring, winter, or autumn. If symptoms are appearing in the late summer or spring, then it is seasonal. It would be major depression if symptoms are exhibited in the winter season, and they would go away in the summer or spring.
  • Psychotic Depression: it is a severe form of depressive episode comprising delusion, hallucination, and psychotic episodes. The experience of its episode would be disturbing and upsetting.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder comprises mood swings from depression and manic episodes. BPD is similar to clinical depression when a person is experiencing a low mood. The manic episode or mania is an alternative to the depressive episode. The person would experience highly active, irritable, and elevated moods in the manic episode. Some of the main types of bipolar disorder are as follows;

  • Bipolar-I: it is a severe type, and the symptoms of the manic episode would last for seven days, and require hospitalization in severe cases. The symptoms of the depressive episode would also happen, and it lasts for two weeks. In the type-I condition, the symptoms of mania and depression are present at the same time.
  • Bipolar-II: a person experiences the symptoms of hypomania in the bipolar type-II disorder, and its symptoms aren’t more severe than the manic episode. The hypomanic episode isn’t more disruptive and intensive than mania. A person with type II can perform routine tasks and he doesn’t require hospitalization.
  • Cyclothymia: it is a less severe and milder type of bipolar condition. The cyclothymic episode makes a person experience irregular mood swings of low to moderate emotions. The mood swing can happen at any time and its episode lasts for a short time.

Symptoms of Mood Disorder 

Some of the main depressive symptoms of the mood disorder are as follows;

  • Focusing and concentration difficulty
  • Suicidal thoughts and thinking about death frequently
  • Limited sleep or too much
  • Losing interest in the pleasurable activities
  • Gaining/losing weight
  • Overeating or not eating at all
  • Hopeless and worthless feelings
  • Sluggish and limited energy
  • Sad and upset feelings every day

Some of the top symptoms of the manic and hypomanic episodes in the mood disorder are as follows;

  • On edge and jumping feelings without any reason
  • Sleep issues or insomnia
  • Racing thoughts
  • Highly active more than usual and wanting to do more things at once
  • Engaging in risky behavior like reckless driving and spending money
  • Irritability, restlessness, and agitation
  • Moving and speaking rapidly
  • Elevated mood and energetic feelings

Causes of Mood Disorder 

A mood disorder can happen due to various environmental, biological, genetic, and other factors. Some of the main causes and risk factors are as follows;

  • Brain structure and its function in the case of bipolar disorder
  • The impact of medication on certain types of illnesses, and depressive episodes has links to diseases like heart disease, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, cancer, etc.
  • Stressful, traumatic, and other major changes in life
  • Family history

Treatment of Mood Disorder 

The treatment plan for mood disorders depends on the symptoms and type of illness a person is facing. It comprises medication and therapy, and its details are as follows;



  • SSRIs
  • Citalopram
  • Sertraline
  • Fluoxetine
  • SNRIs
  • Duloxetine
  • Venlafaxine
  • Bupropion

II-Mood Stabilizer

  • Valproic
  • Lamotrigine
  • Carbamazepine
  • Oxecarbazepine


  • Aripiprazole


Some of the main types of psychotherapies are as follows;

  • Problem-solving therapy
  • Interpersonal Therapy
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Brain stimulation therapy
  • Electroconvulsive therapy
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

Conclusion: What is Mood Disorder? Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 

After an in-depth study of what is a mood disorder; its symptoms, causes, and treatment; we have realized mood disorders could badly impact your life. If you’re experiencing any of its types, then you should consult with a psychologist in your area ASAP.