What is Personality Disorder? Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 

A personality disorder is a group of 10 mental health conditions comprising mood, behavior, disruptive thinking pattern, and other long-lasting conditions. People with personality disorders condition don’t consider their behaviors and thoughts as problematic. Today, what is personality disorder; its different types, symptoms, causes, and treatment.

What is Personality Disorder? 

A personality disorder is a mental health condition comprised of disruptive thinking patterns, mood, behavior, and other long-lasting conditions relevant to it. Such a disruptive pattern would cause a lot of distress and impair your capability to perform various functions in life.

The personality disorders are of 10 types, and each category has got unique symptoms and characteristics. The personality plays a significant role in defining who we are as a person; and it comprises of a combination of characteristics like behavior, thoughts, and attitude; how we share these characteristics while interacting with others and the world around us.

The personality disorder would cause abnormal behavior, distorted perception of reality, and distressful thoughts across various areas of life like social functioning, relationship, and work. People with PD conditions won’t realize their difficult behavior and the impact it has on others.

Types of Personality Disorder 

DSM-5 (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) has categorized ten types of personality disorders into three main clusters. The symptoms of every cluster are different, and they’re as follows;

Cluster-A Personality Disorder

  • I-Schizotypal Personality Disorder: it’s a type where people exhibit a high level of discomfort and a limited need for developing close relationships. Their unusual behavior, superstitions, and distorted view of reality would jeopardize their relationships.
  • II-Schizoid Personality Disorder: it’s a type comprised of a person’s general disinterest in developing relationships and a consistent pattern of detachment. People with this condition exhibit limited emotions when they interact with others.
  • III-Paranoid Personality Disorder: the main features of this type are being suspicious of others without any reason and relentless mistrust. People with PPD condition believe that others are trying to threaten, harm, or demean them.

Cluster-B Personality Disorder

  • I-Narcissistic Personality Disorder: NPD comprises limited empathy for others, a high need for admiration and praise, and a pattern of grandiosity and superiority. Such behaviors and thoughts are often based on a lack of self-confidence and limited self-esteem.
  • II-Histrionic PD: the condition comprises distorted self-image, unstable, and intense emotions. People with this condition don’t have feelings of their self-worth and their self-esteem requires the approval of others. They have got a great desire to be noticed by others, and they would exhibit inappropriate and dramatic emotions in order to get the attention of others.
  • III-Borderline PD: BPD comprises relationship difficulties, impulsive behaviors, mood swings, lower self-esteem, and difficulty in managing emotions.
  • IV-Antisocial PD: ASPD doesn’t follow socially accepted norms and shows limited respect towards others. They would cause emotional and physical harm and break the law. They don’t take responsibility for their actions and exhibit negative consequences of their actions.

Cluster-C Personality Disorder

  • I-Obsessive Compulsive PD: the condition comprises of high need for control, perfectionism, and orderliness. It ultimately disturbs their capability to complete various tasks on time, and it also disturbs their relationships.
  • II-Dependent PD: People with this condition require the care of other people. Their behavior would comprise of incapability of making decisions by themselves, needing reassurance, and submissiveness. Often, they become close with other people and spend a lot of time pleasing them.
  • III-Avoidant PD: People with conditions are sensitive to the negative judgment of others and chronic feelings of inadequacy. They avoid social interactions with others due to the fear of rejection.

Symptoms of Personality Disorder 

The symptoms of every personality disorder are different, and every personality disorder comprises problems in the following ways;

  • Relationships: it is difficult for people with PD conditions to establish stable and close relationships with others due to their problematic behaviors and beliefs. They become overly needy of attention and care, emotionally detached from others, limited empathy, and have lower respect for others.
  • Sense of Identity: it’s challenging for people with PD conditions to establish a stable and clear image of themselves. The image they perceive of themselves relies on the type of people they’re accompanying and the situation. Their self-esteem level would be unrealistically higher or lower.

Causes of Personality Disorder 

Some of the main factors that play their part in developing personality disorder are as follows;

  • Cultural Factors: cultural factors play a significant role in the development of PD conditions, and they show different rates of PD in various countries. For instance, antisocial PD is much lower in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and cluster-C has a much higher rater there.
  • Verbal Abuse: people that have experienced verbal abuse in their childhood, they’re vulnerable to developing OCPD, PPD, or NPD when they grow up.
  • Childhood Trauma: a study has shown that there is a connection between PD condition and childhood traumatic experience. For instance, people with BPD have had a childhood sexual traumatic experience. They experience the issue of limited trust and intimacy due to trauma and childhood abuse.
  • Brain Changes: studies have shown that the brain structure of people with PD conditions is a bit different. Amygdala is an area of the brain that comprises processing threatening and fearful stimuli.
  • Genetics: Researchers have shown the malfunctioning gene could play a significant role in developing PD conditions. They’re studying the links of genetics with fear, anxiety, and depression.

Treatment of Personality Disorder 

It’s difficult to treat people with PD conditions because they don’t consider their behavior a problem. There are no exact medicines that would help people with PD conditions, but they do help you in managing the symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Psychotherapy is a very useful and effective treatment method for PD conditions. It employs various techniques that focus on recognizing difficult behavior, thoughts, and emotions. Your psychologist would offer support and guidance to you and your family.

Conclusion: What is Personality Disorder? Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

After an in-depth study of what is personality disorder; its types, symptoms, causes, and treatment; we have realized that PD condition could negatively impact your life and relationships. If you’re experiencing its symptoms, then you should consult with your trusted mental health professional.